Borrowed funds are provided to enterprises by the State Bank in the form of short-term loans. Short-term loans (loans) of the State Bank are issued for a specific purpose for a specified period and for material security. For the use of loans from the enterprise interest is charged (fee for using loans). Classification of loans. Short-term credit and its forms. State and municipal small business support funds have the right to provide small businesses with soft loans, interest-free loans, short-term loans without acquiring a banking license. Loans issued by the bank include short-term, long-term interbank, overdue loans. To analyze the quality of assets, a risk protection coefficient is also calculated. It is determined by the ratio of profit and reserves of the bank and the balance of loan debt.
The coefficient shows what proportion of overdue debt in the loan portfolio the bank can cover at the expense of net profit and reserves, without exposing the risk of borrowed funds of its customers. The balance of loan debt includes short-term loans - look here, long-term, interbank loans. Primary reserves (cash, etc.), secondary reserves (government securities). bank loans, short-term loans. Loan duration is the time for which the lender provides a loan to the borrower ( a loan). Short-term loan is up to one year, medium-term - from 1 to 3 years, long-term - over 3 years. The sources of repayment of loans depend on the type of loan. Short-term loans are usually repaid through the liquidation of inventories or receivables for which the borrower received a loan. Long-term loans are repaid at the expense of the profit received through the use of the loan. The interest on the loan can also be paid lump-sum upon expiration of the loan or in equal installments during the term of the loan. Borrowed funds are provided to enterprises by the State Bank in the form of short-term loans. Short-term loans (credits) of the State Bank are issued for the intended purpose, for a certain period and under material security. For using loans from an enterprise, 1-2% per annum is kept and for some types of loans - at the level of payment for funds. If the loan is not returned within the prescribed period, the size of the payment increases (2% higher than the payment for production assets).
Borrowed working capital is generated from short-term loans of the State Bank to cover the temporary need for funds caused by reasons not directly dependent on the operation of the chemical company. The source of coverage for the temporary shortage of funds from the analyzed company can also be funds from other enterprises temporarily transferred to it during the interdepartmental redistribution of working capital, as well as the amount of accounts payable in the enterprise.
Short-term loans are provided, as a rule, to compensate for the temporary lack of working capital of the borrowing company. The average repayment term for this type of loan in world practice usually does not exceed six months, while in Russia, short-term, as a rule, include loans with a repayment term of not more than one month. Short-term loans serve the current needs of the borrower related to the movement of working capital. Short-term loans are those loans whose repayment term does not exceed one year by international standards. However, in practice, their term may vary. This is determined by economic conditions, the degree of inflation. The organization receives short-term loans for a period of up to one year for inventories, settlement documents on the way and other needs, and long-term loans for a period of one year for the introduction of new equipment, organization and expansion of production, mechanization of production and other purposes.
The organization receives short-term loans for a period of up to one year for stocks of inventories, settlement documents on the way and other needs, and long-term loans for a period of one year to introduce new equipment, organize and expand production, mechanize production and other purposes. Bank - if a loan is issued to purchase a checkbook. Short-term loans can be provided not only by commercial banks, but also by financial and credit companies, as well as by government organizations. Short-term bank loans are issued for: a) loans for inventory and turnover - for stocks of materials, work in progress, finished goods; b) loans for temporary needs - for excess reserves arising due to circumstances beyond the control of the enterprise; c) loans for settlement documents - on the shipment of products to consumers until mutual settlements are completed; loans for the introduction of new technology, equipment upgrades.