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TOPIC: MCS ab Particulate Vector

MCS ab Particulate Vector 8 years 11 months ago #1

Clean Diesel: Public Health Nightmare


During combustion particles are generated and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) form in the gas phase. When the exhaust cools - PAHs adsorb or condense on the particles (Burtscher 1998).

There are two principal fractions of adsorbed PAHs: one is quickly desorbed - and the other retained on particles for a long time (Gerde 1991, Burtscher 1986, Adamson 1982, Natusch 1978).

Approx 80% of rapidly desorbed PAHS are deposited on the thin alveolar type 1 epithelium deep in the lung (Yeh 1996) and become systemic quickly with blood concentration peaking in several minutes.

3/4 of blood activity from the rapidly absorbed B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) used in Gerde 2001 ceased in 10 minutes - nearly all within 30 - and by one hour completely leveled - mostly into conjugated phase ll metabolites (Fung 1999, Thompson 1989, Molliere 1987).

In contrast, the remaining 20% of rapidly desorbed PAHs "...are deposited, slowly absorbed, and extensively metabolized in airway epithelium at prolonged elevation of the local tissue concentration (Gerde 1997)..."

Over 5 months later particles in the lung and lymph nodes had only 37 and 59% of B[a]P desorbed - mostly during the initial rapid release - with the exception of more desorption from particles translocated to the lymph nodes - possibly due to environment within macrophages (Nyberg 1989, Harmsen 1985, Lundborg 1984).

In airway epithelial cells a complexity of transduction and transcription factors (NFkB, MAPK, XRE, ARE, NrF2) and modification of cellular redox - are involved with the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and induction of Phase I and II gene expression including CYP1A1 and NQO-1 (Baulig 2003a) - from a point of view excluding the sensory innervation.


"...In airway epithelial cells, DEP (diesel exhaust particles) via their organic components (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene desorbed from the carbonaceous core), modify the cellular redox state...induce phase I (CYP1A1) and phase II (NQO-1) gene expression and can be metabolized,,,numerous genes implicated in detoxification...activated via xenobiotic responsive element and ARE (antioxidant responsive element) as well as in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines via NFkB responsive element (Bonvallot 2001)..."

The expression of metabolizing enzymes in airway epithelial cells is not unique to MCS - since the search for a genetic explanation concerning phase I and II enzymes found no association that could be applied to the majority of MCS cases (MCS 14, Deluca 2011, 2010, Berg 2010).

However, activity of these enzymes is with cost - their induction a struggle to survive - inhalation of combustion byproducts living on the edge - as in the following of Bonvallot 2001 concerning ROS generation and CYPs.


"...DEP (diesel exhaust particles) have been shown to generate ROS (reactive oxygen species) leading to the transcription of antioxidant genes such as heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), which are regulated by the antioxidant responsive element (Li 2000, Kumagai 1995)...

...catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 are known to produce ROS directly and also generate biologic reactive intermediates, including quinones, which produce ROS by redox cycling (Bolton 2000)...

...CB (carbonaceous core) exhibit oxidative properties as they deplete the antioxidant defenses in the epithelial lining fluid (Ziedinski 1999) and induce DNA strand scission in plasmidic DNA (Stone 1998)...

...the carbonaceous core could be considered mostly as a vector allowing the entry of organic compounds into the cells and their slow diffusion leading to sustained stimulation of the cells as native diesel exhaust particles-induced NFkB DNA binding started later but was more persistent than that induced by organic extracts of diesel exhaust particles...(Boland 2000, 1999, Bonvallot 2000, Baeza-Squiban 1999, Bayram 1998, Kumagai 1997, Thomas 1997)..."

Cause and Exascerbation of Cardio-pulmonary Disease


"...DEP injures respiratory epithelia via a luminal -apical unloading mechanism of DEP organics delivered by carbonaceous nanoparticles...
...the particles' carbonaceous cores are coated with thousands of organics and heavy metals. Because large numbers of hazardous chemicals are present on DEP, its pathological effects on human airways are pleiotropic. We and others have found that DEP evokes the secretion of matrix metallo-proteinase-1 (MMP-1) from human bronchial epithelia (Li 2009, Amara 2007). Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) plays a role in tissue remodeling during development, inflammation, migration of inflammatory and malignant cells, and COPD and emphysemia pathogenesis (Segura-Valdez 2000). It also has neurotropic effects, possibly enhancing sensitization of airway-innervating sensory neurons, contributing to airway hypersensitization and chronic cough (Conant 2004)...

...TRPV4-p19s, a human genetic polymorphism previously identified as a COPD susceptibility locus (Zhu 2009), increases MMP-1 activation via increased Ca-2+ influx, providing a mechanistic link between human airway epithelia signaling, airway disease and air pollution...

...TRPV4-p19s as a gain-of-function Ca-2+ permeable channel in a human respiratory epithelia cell line, in response to DEP, links COPD pathogenesis to pathologically increased Ca2+ influx into human respiratory epithelia elicited by a globally relevant air pollutant (DEP)...

...our results imply that two human genetic polymorphisms are linked to respiratory health, TRPV4-p19s and MMP-1(-1607G/GG), thus highlighting the concept of disease susceptibility as a function of genetic "makeup" combined with environmental insults..."


"...a single exposure to particulate matter (PM) or gaseous air pollutants has the potential to "sensitize" the heart to subsequent arrhythmogenic stimuli, which is further worsened by the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease (Hazari 2009)...

...the airways are innervated by sensory nerves bearing transient receptor potential (TRP) channels; namely, member A1 (TRPA1), and member V1 (TRPV1), which detect different types of noxious chemicals, including many of those found in the complex mixtures of common air pollutants such as DE. Activation of these nerves by airborne irritants such as ozone or acrolein causes centrally mediated autonomic "imbalance", which produces ventilatory, pulmonary, and cardiovascular function changes (Bessac 2008, Ghelfi 2008, Bautista 2006)..."

Causitive Role in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's


... exposure to significant amounts of air pollutants including UFPM and PM2.5 produces neuroinflammation and altered innate immune responses in crucial brain target anatomical areas...ultrafine PM could play a role in the enhancement rate of protein fibrillation affecting Abeta42 and alpha-synuclein (Linse 2007)...

...Long-term exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and APOE beta 4 allele carriers could have a higher risk of developing AD if they reside in a polluted environment..."


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Tags: DEP, MCS, PAHs, chemical, diesel, etiology, exhaust, multiple, particle, sensitivity
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