J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Jul;118(1):233-41. Epub 2006 Apr 27.
Activation of T cells by carbamazepine and carbamazepine metabolites.
Wu Y, Sanderson JP, Farrell J, Drummond NS, Hanson A, Bowkett E, Berry N, Stachulski AV, Clarke SE, Pichler WJ, Pirmohamed M, Park BK, Naisbitt DJ.
From the Departments of Pharmacology.
BACKGROUND: T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity is a rare but serious manifestation of drug therapy. OBJECTIVES: To explore the mechanisms of drug presentation to T cells and the possibility that generation of metabolite-specific T cells may provoke cross-sensitization between drugs. METHODS: A lymphocyte transformation test was performed on 13 hypersensitive patients with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and carbamazepine metabolites. Serial dilution experiments were performed to generate drug (metabolite)-specific T-cell clones to explore the structural basis of the T-cell response and mechanisms of antigen presentation. 3-Dimensional energy-minimized structures were generated by using computer modeling. The role of drug metabolism was analyzed with 1-aminobenzotriazole. RESULTS: Lymphocytes and T-cell clones proliferated with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and some (carbamazepine 10,11 epoxide, 10-hydroxy carbamazepine) but not all stable carbamazepine metabolites. Structure activity studies using 29 carbamazepine (metabolite)-specific T-cell clones revealed 4 patterns of drug recognition, which could be explained by generation of preferred 3-dimensional structural conformations. T cells were stimulated by carbamazepine (metabolites) bound directly to MHC in the absence of processing. The activation threshold for T-cell proliferation varied between 5 minutes and 4 hours. 1-Aminobenzotriazole, which inhibits cytochrome P450 activity, did not prevent carbamazepine-related T-cell proliferation. Substitution of the terminal amine residue of carbamazepine with a methyl group diminished T-cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: These data show that carbamazepine and certain stable carbamazepine metabolites stimulate T cells rapidly via a direct interaction with MHC and specific T-cell receptors. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Some patients with a history of carbamazepine hypersensitivity possess T cells that cross-react with oxcarbazepine, providing a rationale for cross-sensitivity between the 2 drugs.
PMID: 16815161 [PubMed - in process]