Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct 4; [Epub ahead of print]
Biliary Tract Candidiasis: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches in a Case Series.
Domagk D, Fegeler W, Conrad B, Menzel J, Domschke W, Kucharzik T. Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Biliary obstruction with its wide range of potential causes is a common disorder in gastroenterology. Infections of the biliary tract with Candida and other fungal species leading to obstructive jaundice have increasingly been recognized in the last few years. Besides a few case reports, there are few data in the literature giving us an idea how to diagnose and treat these patients. METHODS: We report on a series of seven patients suffering from biliary tract candidiasis who were diagnosed and treated at our institution. Predisposition factors, reliability of various diagnostic modalities, and treatment options based on our own experience are presented and discussed. RESULTS: Besides the general diagnostic modalities such as laboratory findings or ultrasonography, we often observed mycelia in the bile duct system endoscopically. Typical morphological changes in peripheral bile ducts could be detected during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Aspiration of bile and subsequent microbiological analysis in combination with ERCP findings revealed diagnosis of bile duct candidiasis in all cases. Treatment included both antiinfectious drugs and endoscopic therapy such as bile duct drainage, lavage, or debridement. With respect to fungal eradication, therapy was successful in 71% of cases as proven by microbiological analysis of bile aspirates. Since many of these patients suffer not only from biliary mycosis but also from disease necessitating immunosuppression, the prognosis was poor in some cases. CONCLUSION: Biliary tract candidiasis because of immunosuppression is an increasingly recognized disease and remains a major clinical challenge. Besides laboratory analysis and ultrasonography, diagnostic modalities should include aspiration of bile during ERCP and microbiological analysis. Antiinfectious drug treatment as the main therapeutic column for biliary candidiasis should be complemented by endoscopic intervention.
PMID: 17029620 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]