Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;18(2):145-7.
Proton and 31-phosphorus neurospectroscopy in the study of membrane phospholipids and fatty acid intervention in schizophrenia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis) and dyslexia.
MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
Neurospectroscopy allows biochemical processes in the brain to be studied non-invasively. At magnetic field strengths of 1.5 T or higher, cerebral proton neurospectroscopy allows the ascertainment of values of myo-inositol, choline-containing compounds, creatine, glutamate, glutamine, and N-acetyl aspartate. At similar field strengths, cerebral 31-phosphorus neurospectroscopy allows the ascertainment of values of phosphomonoesters, inorganic phosphate, phosphodiesters, phosphocreatine, and the gamma, alpha and beta nucleotide triphosphate (mainly adenosine triphosphate) resonances. Since choline is a common polar head group at the Sn3 position of membrane phospholipid molecules, a raised level of free choline, as indexed by proton neurospectroscopy, can indicate relatively low anabolism of membrane phospholipid molecules. Furthermore, the choline peak includes phosphorylcholine and glycerophosphorylcholine and even ethanolamine. The phosphomonoesters peak measured using 31-phosphorus spectroscopy includes major contributions from phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine and L-phosphoserine, which are important precursors of membrane phospholipids, while the phosphodiesters peak includes contributions from glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine, which are important products of membrane phospholipid catabolism. Hence proton neurospectroscopy and 31-phosphorus neurospectroscopy can yield important information relating to the metabolism of cerebral membrane phospholipids. The application of these techniques to the investigation of membrane phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis or M.E.) and dyslexia is described.
PMID: 16777668 [PubMed - in process]
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