Social Links

Follow on Facebook Follow on TwitterFollow EiR on PinterestFollow EiR on Instagram

Xpert Access


Login To Get Involved!

Forgot your username?

Forgot your password?


Join Us At EiR Now!

DNRS Roof Banner


Perceived likelihood as a measure of optimism and pessimism





Psychol Assess. 2006 Jun;18(2):215-9.


Perceived likelihood as a measure of optimism and pessimism: support for the future events scale.


Wichman AL, Reich DA, Weary G.


Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, US. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..


The Future Events Scale (FES; S. M. Andersen, 1990) is an expectancy-based measure of optimism and pessimism, grounded in cognitive theories of depression, with implications for clinical practice. Although ample research has documented the utility of the FES in predicting important cognitive and behavioral outcomes, psychometric data on the scale are lacking. The current article presents multisample analyses to show that the FES has clear factor structure, good reliability, and a theoretically meaningful nomological network. The FES is shown to be distinct from the best known measure of optimism and pessimism, the Life Orientation Test (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985). Applications are discussed. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).


PMID: 16768598 [PubMed - in process]










Related Articles:


Mold Testing & Sanitizer:







  • No comments found

Leave your comments

Post comment as a guest

0 Character restriction
Your text should be more than 25 characters
Your comments are subjected to administrator's moderation.
terms and condition.

Adsense Responsive BottomBanner